advertisement

How to use your smartphone as your on demand formula and calculator


advertisement

Subscribe now to create your own on demand formula and calculator website.


VOICE DATA ENTRY
valid only for smartphone with microphone icon. Touch clear button. Next touch any white button. Next touch microphone icon . Next speak numbers only. Always use the word point for whole number. For example say 5 point 0 instead of saying five.
Sometimes it does not work then just enter manually because it is still learning.


3 Phase Transformer Available Fault Current Calculator

Calculate the base MVA maximum fault current using ANSI Method that would appear at the transformer bushing stud terminal. What is the base MVA internal winding fault current inside the tank on the high voltage coil or primary side of the transformer ? What is the 150 MVA internal winding fault current inside the tank? What is the 180 MVA internal winding fault current inside the tank? What is the 216 MVA emergency rating internal winding fault current inside the tank?

If the Digital Fault Recorder (DFR) Line to Ground Fault on Phase A recorded a fault of 3,850 A on the primary or high voltage side, did it exceed the emergency rating fault current? Explain your answer.


1 MVA = 1,000,000 VA ; 1 kV = 1000 V ; √3 = 1.732

Based current Line Amp
=
3 Phase MVA

kV * 1.732


Section 7 of IEEE Std C57.12.00-2000 specified the general short circuit requirements for liquid-immerse distribution, power, and regulating transformers. For Category I and II transformers, symmetrical short circuit current shall be computed using transformer impedance only. For Category III and IV, system impedance should be included together with transformer impedance to calculate the symmetrical short circuit current. In our example our base MVA is 100 MVA, therefore it is a category IV transformer and should be calculated together with the system impedance. But for now we are neglecting the contribution of system impedance in our symmetrical short circuit calculation. By neglecting the system impedance, you are adding additional safety factor in your transformer short circuit withstand capability. In reality adding the system impedance will lower the calculated available short circuit current but it is difficult to get the real time transmission line impedance value because the network is dynamic due to power flow changes, unplanned outages due to storm and planned outages for scheduled apparatus maintenance.




Category Single Phase kVA Three Phase kVA
I 5 to 500 15 to 500
II 501 to 1667 501 to 5000
III 1668 to 10000 5001 to 30000
IV Above 10000 Above 30000

Using the ANSI method the maximum available fault current at the transformer bushing stud terminal will be:

Max. Available Fault Current Line Amp
=
base current

Z %

Now assuming the system impedance Zsys = 5 % is in series connection with transformer impedance. Therefore the total impedance, Ztotal = Ztr 15% + Zsys 5 % = 20 %. The base short circuit current will be going down to 1255.145 Amp.


Transformer must also withstand the peak asymmetrical short circuit current during the first cycle. ANSI method for calculating the peak asymmetrical short circuit current = K * Isc.


If the x/r ratio of the system is unknown. ANSI method indicates the x/r ratio of the transformer should be used. Assuming the the x/r ratio of the given 100/150/180 MVA power transformer is 25.


Calculate the peak assymetrical short circuit current the given transformer must be able to withstand during the first cycle.


From IEEE C57.12.00 Table 7B-1 for x/r = 25 use K =


Therefore the peak asymmetrical line short circuit current during the first cycle (16.67 ms) = Amp.


Keep in mind, this value was based on x/r = 25. You must change your K-factor value depending on the transformer x/r value that you are analyzing.



For delta connected primary winding, the winding fault current = transformer terminal stud line fault current divided by square root of three or 1.732

Max. Available Fault Current Winding Amp
=
Max. Fault Current


Therefore the peak asymmetrical winding short circuit current = Amp. Keep in mind, this value was based on x/r = 25. You must change your K-factor value depending on the transformer x/r value that you are analyzing.

HOW TO USE: Enter new number on any white input boxes. Answer is automatic.
For scenario analysis: change the % Z value and the K - Factor value

When you change %Z or K-factor or both you should click all the white input boxes below to do new calculation base on new changes that you have made.

SUMMARY OF FAULT CALCULATION

MVA RATING LOAD Current WYE-Fault Current WYE-Assy. Fault Current DELTA -Fault Current DELTA -Assy. Fault Current
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .


> ? Is the analysis correct why? and why not?

The above inequality equation is an example of DFR fault current interpretation for delta connected primary coil winding. Here the assumption is 200 A fault current reduction due to transmission lines impedance. Then comparing this value to emergency MVA rating available fault current to make your fault current analysis. One of the questions you may want to know the answer in your fault current analysis, is the actual fault current enough to cause your transformer to fail?

Did your transformer fail at this fault current? Knowing the answer to this question will maybe lead you to update your fault current studies for the substation. Maybe you need to update your % Z of your transformer specifications for the substation to mitigate the problem or add series reactor to limit the fault current.




IEEE C57.12.00 Table 7 B-1 Values of K

x/r K
200 2.806
167 2.802
143 2.798
125 2.793
111 2.789
100 2.785
50 2.743
33.3 2.702
25 2.662
20 2.624
16.7 2.588
14.3 2.552
12.5 2.518
11.1 2.484
10 2.452
5 2.184
3.33 1.990
2.5 1.849
2 1.746
1.67 1.669
1.43 1.611
1.25 1.568
1.11 1.534
1.0 1.509